Bio F1B

Bio 14.6

Bio TO-2

Bio F1D

Bio NT

Bio HT

Bio 87.20

Bio 15.16

Bio 1.5

Bio Golden Syrian

Bio 14.6

This is genetically defined mutant Syrian hamster.  The spontaneous mutation was discovered in the early 1960's and was perpetuated ever since.  This mutation affect all muscle systems, namely smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle.  The molecular basis for the genetic defect has been identified as mutation in the delta sarcoglycan gene.


  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Arrhythmia
  • Heart failure
  • Rend disease
  • Gene therapy
  • Gait abnormalities
  • ECG abnormalities



Homburger, F., et al. 1962. Arch. Intern. Med. 110: 660-662.

Historical Reference Sampling Myopathics

1. Gertz, 1972. Cardiomyopathic Syrian Hamster...
2. Homburger, 1979. Myopathy of Hamster Dystrophy....
3. Sole, 1986. Hamster Cardiomyopathy: Understanding...
4. Nigro, 1997. Identification of the Syrian hamster cardiomyopathy gene.
5. Sakamoto, 1997. Both hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies...
6. Xiao, 2000. Full functional rescue of a complete muscle....
7. Kawada, 2002. Rescue of hereditary form of dilated....
8. Zsu, 2005. Sustained Whole-Body functional rescue in....
9. Wang, 2005, Adeno-associated virus serotype 8 efficiently....
10. Dieterle, 2005. Gene transfer of a phospholamban-targeted....
Additional Reference List