genomic analyses of Polymyxin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains from China

Background: This has brought great challenges to the treatment of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and K. pneumoniae.
Results: K. pneumoniae 16BU137 and E. coli 17MR471 were isolated from the bus and subway handrails in Guangzhou, China. K. pneumoniae 19PDR22 and KP20191015 were isolated from patients with urinary tract infection and severe pneumonia in Anhui, China.
The mcr-1.1 was found in the putative IncX4 type plasmid p16BU137_mcr-1.1 of K. pneumoniae 16BU137, but ISApl1 was not found in its flanking sequence. Mcr-8 variants were found joplink Human ACYP2 cDNA in the putative IncFIB/ IncFII plasmid pKP20191015_mcr-8 of K. pneumoniae KP20191015 and flanked by ISEcl1 and ISKpn26 .
Conclusion: This study provides timely information on Enterobacteriaceae bacteria carrying mcr-like genes, and provides a reference for studying the spread of mcr-1 in China and globally.

Non-viral delivery of the CRISPR/Cas system: DNA versus RNA versus RNP

Since its discovery, the CRISPR/Cas technology has rapidly become an essential tool in modern biomedical research. The opportunities to specifically modify and correct genomic DNA have also raised big hope for therapeutic applications by direct in vivo genome editing. In order to achieve the intended genome modifications, the functional unit of the CRISPR/Cas system finally has to be present in the nucleus of target cells.
This can be achieved by the delivery of different biomolecular Cas9 and gRNA formats: plasmid DNA (pDNA), RNA or Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). While the initial research focussed on pDNA transfections, the currently most promising strategy for systemic non-viral in vivo delivery is based on RNA which has achieved remarkable results in the first clinical trials.
RNP delivery receives much attention for ex vivo applications, but the translation to systemic in vivo genome editing in patients has not been reached so far. The article summarises the characteristics and differences of each format, provides an overview of the published delivery strategies, and highlights recent examples of delivery systems including the status of clinical applications.

Dissemination Routes of Carbapenem and Pan-Aminoglycoside Resistance Mechanisms in Hospital and Urban Wastewater Canalizations of Ghana

Wastewater has a major role in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) dynamics and public health. The impact on AMR of wastewater flux at the community-hospital interface in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is poorly understood. Therefore, the present study analyzed the epidemiological scenario of resistance genes, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and bacterial populations in wastewater around the Tamale metropolitan area (Ghana). Wastewater samples were collected from the drainage and canalizations before and after three hospitals and one urban waste treatment plant (UWTP). From all carbapenem/pan-aminoglycoside-resistant bacteria, 36 isolates were selected to determine bacterial species and phenotypical resistance profiles.
Nanopore sequencing was used to screen resistance genes and plasmids, whereas, sequence types, resistome and plasmidome contents, pan-genome structures, and resistance gene variants were analyzed with Illumina sequencing. The combination of these sequencing data allowed for the resolution of the resistance gene-carrying platforms. Hospitals and the UWTP collected genetic and bacterial elements from community wastewater and amplified successful resistance gene-bacterium associations, which reached the community canalizations.
Uncommon carbapenemase/β-lactamase gene variants, like blaDIM-1, and novel variants, including blaVIM-71blaCARB-53, and blaCMY-172, were identified and seem to spread via clonal expansion of environmental Pseudomonas spp. However, blaNDM-1blaCTX-M-15, and armA genes, among others, were associated with MGEs that allowed for their dissemination between environmental and clinical bacterial hosts. In conclusion, untreated hospital wastewater in Ghana is a hot spot for the emergence and spread of genes and gene-plasmid-bacterium associations that accelerate AMR, including last-resort antibiotics. Urgent actions must be taken in wastewater management in LMICs in order to delay AMR expansion.
IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the major threats to public health today, especially resistance to last-resort compounds for the treatment of critical infections, such as carbapenems and aminoglycosides.
Innumerable works have focused on the clinical ambit of AMR, but studies addressing the impact of wastewater cycles on the emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria are still limited. The lack of knowledge is even greater when referring to low- and middle-income countries, where there is an absence of accurate sanitary systems.
Furthermore, the combination of short- and long-read sequencing has surpassed former technical limitations, allowing the complete characterization of resistance genes, mobile genetic platforms, plasmids, and bacteria. The present study deciphered the multiple elements and routes involved in AMR dynamics in wastewater canalizations and, therefore, in the local population of Tamale, providing the basis to adopt accurate control measures to preserve and promote public health.

Playgrounds in City of Pushchino with Different Types of Coating as Reservoir of Antibiotic-Resistant Strains of Pseudomonas spp

In this study, we investigated antibiotic-resistant microorganisms isolated by the direct plating method from 6 playgrounds in the city of Pushchino, Moscow Region, with different types of coating: sand, soil with sand, grass, and a modern playground coating made of pressed rubber crumb. According to the results of the study, sand is the cleanest type of coating, both in terms of the total count of cultivated microorganisms (8 × 105/g of the substrate) and in terms of the content of resistant strains.
The most contaminated both in terms of the total count of cultivated microorganisms (1.2-1.9 × 109/g of the substrate) and in terms of the content of antibiotic-resistant strains was the coating of pressed rubber crumbs. We isolated 65 antibiotic-resistant strains of fluorescent pseudomonads. Nine Pseudomonas strains were found to contain antibiotic resistance plasmids (one belongs to the P-1 incompatibility group, seven to IncP-7, and one to the unidentified incompatibility group).
For the first time, we discovered a conjugative plasmid pD4A-46 conferring tetracycline resistance and belonging to the P-7 incompatibility group. Taking into account the results obtained under this study, it can be recommended to periodically treat the crumb rubber coating with non-toxic antiseptics, i.e. hydrogen peroxide or chlorhexidine.

Paradoxical role of the major DNA repair protein, OGG1, in action-at-a-distance mutation induction by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine

Oxidatively damaged bases induce mutations and are involved in cancer initiation. 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (G°, 8-hydroxyguanine) is an abundant oxidized base that induces targeted G:C→T:A transversions in human cells, as well as untargeted base substitution (action-at-a-distance) mutations of the G bases of 5′-GpA-3′ dinucleotides. The action-at-a-distance mutations become more frequent than the targeted transversions when the amount of Werner syndrome (WRN) protein is decreased.
In this study, OGG1, the major DNA glycosylase for the damaged base, and WRN were knocked down in isolation and in combination in human U2OS cells, and a shuttle plasmid carrying G° was introduced into the knockdown cells. Interestingly, fewer action-at-a-distance mutations were observed in the WRN plus OGG1 double knockdown cells, as compared to the WRN single knockdown cells. These results indicated the paradoxical role of OGG1, as an accelerator of the action-at-a-distance mutations by the oxidized guanine base.

Acyp2/ Rat Acyp2 ELISA Kit

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